Fourteen people have gone on trial over the deadly attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, which sparked a wave of violence by Islamic State in Europe.
The defendants – 13 men and a woman – are accused of being accomplices to the attacks in January 2015, which also targeted a policewoman and a Jewish supermarket.
Seventeen people were killed in total, along with all three gunmen.
Eleven of the defendants appeared in a specially modified courtroom in Paris on Wednesday, with each one watched by two police officers wearing balaclavas and bullet-proof vests.
Those on trial are accused of buying weapons and cars and helping with logistics for the attacks. Most of the accused in court insist their help was unwitting.
Three defendants are being tried in absentia.
They are Hayat Boumedienne, the partner of one of the gunman at the time, and brothers Mohamed and Mehdi Belhoucine, who travelled to Syria days before the attacks and may be dead.
The defendants in court face charges ranging from supplying weapons and logistical help to financing terrorism and membership of a terrorist organisation.
They told the judge they would answer the court’s questions.
No plea is entered under the French legal system.
The attacks in January 2015 started during an editorial meeting at Charlie Hebdo, whose offices had been guarded by police since the publication of caricatures of the Prophet Mohammed years earlier.
Brothers Cherif and Said Kouachi shot dead 12 people before carjacking a vehicle and fleeing.
They claimed the attacks were in the name of al Qaeda.
Two days later, on the eve of the Jewish Sabbath, Amedy Coulibaly stormed a kosher supermarket, killing four hostages in the name of Islamic State.
The attackers died that day during police raids.
Investigators later realised that Coulibaly was also responsible for the death of a young policewoman the previous day.
On the opening day of the trial on Wednesday, Charlie Hebdo re-ran a series of cartoons depicting the Prophet Mohammed, which Muslims consider blasphemous.
The magazine included an image of the Prophet in a bomb-shaped turban that stirred outrage in the Muslim world when it was first published by a Danish newspaper in 2005.
A year later, Charlie Hebdo’s then-director was placed on the “wanted list” of al Qaeda’s Yemen branch.
Explaining the decision to republish the cartoons, editor Laurent “Riss” Sourisseau wrote: “We will never lie down. We will never give up, explaining the decision to re-publish the cartoons.”
More than 250 people have been killed in France in Islamist violence since the January 2015 attacks.
A separate network of French and Belgian fighters for Islamic State struck Paris again in 2015, killing 130 people in attacks at the Bataclan concert hall, the national stadium, and in bars and restaurants.
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