Every year, the calm waters of Lake Powell, teeming with bass, catfish and walleye in Southern Utah, draw dozens of anglers who try their hand at fishing contests awarding thousands of dollars.

But for almost two years, scandal disturbed the peace. In October 2018, at least two suspicious fish caught the attention of the state, leading to a lengthy investigation, analysis by a university lab and, finally, felony charges against two fishermen accused of trying to cheat their way to first place.

The case, which ended last month with guilty pleas, was the first time in Utah’s history that someone had been prosecuted for cheating in a fishing tournament, a spokeswoman for the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources said. Science played a key role in helping to bring the charges.

The fishermen, Robert Dennett and Kamron Wootton, were among the anglers competing in a two-day largemouth bass fishing tournament on Lake Powell in October 2018, according to the Utah wildlife division. A $2,500 prize would be awarded to the team that turned in the five fish with the highest total weight.

The event had about 25 teams and takes place several times a year.

The bass the men had turned in put them in second place after the first day of the tournament, and gave them the prize of the overall biggest fish.

But the bass that Mr. Dennett and Mr. Wootton presented didn’t look like the others, Lt. Paul Washburn, a spokesman for the Utah Division of Wildlife, said on Tuesday.

Two things struck tournament officials about the fish, he said. “One, they were shaped differently, indicating that they probably have a different diet,” he said. “And then also they had some markers of stress,” which he said would be a reddish color in the fishes’ mouth and on the fins.

The fish prompted tournament officials to call a biologist and the Division of Wildlife Resources, which sent an investigator for the second day of the tournament. There, the men were questioned, Lieutenant Washburn said.

“Neither one of them were very inclined to talk to our investigator,” he said. “One of them started to kind of acknowledge that yeah, the fish maybe hadn’t come from Lake Powell. Then he very quickly asked for an attorney, and the other individual didn’t want to say anything.”

Mr. Dennett and Mr. Wootton’s lawyer, Douglas Terry, could not be reached for comment on Tuesday.

The Division of Wildlife Resources had the bass tested at a University of Utah lab. Researchers were able to determine where the fish had originated by comparing the amount of strontium isotopes found naturally in the lakes to the strontium isotopes in an otolith, a particular part of a fish’s ear. An otolith, Lieutenant Washburn said, has a high concentration of calcium and is sensitive to any changes in the chemistry of the water.

In May 2019, after months of waiting, the lab was able to say unequivocally that the fish that Mr. Dennett and Mr. Wootton turned in could not have come from Lake Powell, based on the level of isotopes in the otolith scale of the fish, Lieutenant Washburn said. The wildlife agency eventually learned that the men had been fishing at Quail Creek Reservoir, about 180 miles west, just before the Lake Powell tournament.

On March 18, 2020, nearly a year later, Mr. Dennett and Mr. Wootton were charged with tampering to influence a contest, a third-degree felony; unlawful release of wildlife, a class A misdemeanor; and captivity of protected wildlife, a class B misdemeanor.

“It took so long to charge the men in this case because an amazing amount of scientific work went into proving the violation,” Lieutenant Washburn said. Investigators had to find a university to test the fish, wait for results, take the case to a prosecutor and then conduct additional interviews at the prosecutor’s request. He added that the case was also “put on the back burner a little bit.”

Last month, both men pleaded guilty to all three counts and were ordered to pay a $500 plea in abeyance fee, complete 48 hours of community service, and pay $2,500 in restitution to the Help Stop Poaching Fund of the Utah Division of Wildlife. The men were also sentenced to 24 months’ probation, during which they are prohibited from hunting.

“From our agency standpoint,” Lieutenant Washburn said, “we want to make sure people are following the rules and they’re not taking advantage of wildlife, especially moving fish species to one area or another.”

Both Mr. Dennett and Mr. Wootton were disqualified from the tournament, he added.

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